ANCIENT TIMES - there was no private ownership of farmland -it was shared by the community just as the air, water and animals were shared
RESULT: hunger was not a problem from one year to the next
MEDIEVAL TIMES - ownership of land emerged ('lord of the manor') -property and title were given in exchange for military obligation and loyalty
By the 1600-1700's, Europe was the most technologically advanced and most powerful region in the world. The key to their power was
1) world exploration.
2) Industrial revolution
-each country was seeking ways to be the most powerful
RESULT: European powers established colonial empires in other parts of the world that were less advanced and/or developed.
-ie. Asia, Africa, North/South America, Caribbean, Australia, India
- in many of these areas, people were conquered due to the superior weapons of the Europeans
- the colonies were there to provide food and raw materials for the mother country in Europe and 'feed' its industries.
RESULT: the colony was stripped of its riches, the best farmland in the colony was taken over by Europeans for plantations where cash crops could be grown for consumption in Europe
- ie.tobacco, coffee, palm oil, cocoa, bananas, tea, rubber, sugar, nuts
- native people were forced to move to poorer land on which it was often impossible for them to grow adequate food and hence, the problem of hunger surfaces
Neo-colonialism is economic colonialism, where rich nations maintain economic control over developing nations OR the plantations and other farmland have been taken over by the priviledged class within the country. This priviledged class has political influence and is a group of weathy individuals who exert immense control over the economic and political activities in the country. They therefore welcome foreign investment since it means a more prosperous and powerful lifestyle for them.
The prices of raw materials and unprocessed food cannot keep pace with the prices the people must pay for imported manufactured goods, therefore neo-colonialism is a major obstacle to real development in these countries. Over time foreign companies will control most of the economic activities of the country, from the primary industries (mining, oil), to secondary (manufacturing) to tertiary,(communications) industries.
1) No money to invest - the foreign companies develop the resources and
take the profits out of the country - there is also a new trend
where Multinational companies threaten to pull out of a country if they are not given preferential treatment,
2) The country is dependent on world prices when they sell their raw materials - generally prices are depressed in comparison to manufactured goods
3) The country must pay back loans it has received from foreign banks to help it develop. Some major banks around the world are writing off these loans as bad loans and are reluctant to offer any more loans to these 3rd. 4th and 5th world countries. Other banks are being heavy-handed in demanding that these loans be repaid.
4) The people in the country lack the required skills to hold jobs of importance within the foreign-owned companies. The Multinationals import technology and train locals to do the more menial tasks.
5) There is a lack of educated people in the country to develop businesses which are locally controlled. The educated local people often leave for more lucrative opportunities in other countries.