In order to understand development in the Third-Fourth-Fifth world, we must consider the option available for development. The text gives a brief explanation of the history of industrialization and of the various options available for development: Dispersion or Agglomeration. Essentially, should the industrial development be dispersed throughout the country or should it be centralized in a few main cities? The text also explains what type of development should be used: Growth Pole theory, Import Substitution, MegaProjects and Grass Roots development.
1)Please read pages 224-231 which explain the history of industrialization.
2)Please read pages 248-260 and answer question 2a)-d) on page 258. Please E-mail me your answer.
3)Read the Case Study of India on pages 262-268. Answer question 3b)and c) on page 270. Please submit your press release in the Discussion Area.
There are many examples of industrial development in the LDC's of the world. While some have been successful, many others have been failures. An improved approach to development must take place to ensure success. Some recommendations include:
1) People need jobs. To a certain extent, human labour can be substituted for expensive machinery and high rates of energy consumption. Manufacturing in an LDC should be labour intensive. This means a manufacturing system that utilizes labour as much as possible by supprting, not replacing, machinery.
2) The first goal of manufacturing should be to meet the local demand for products. This type of production not only creates jobs and increases purchasing power, but it reduces the need for costly imported goods and allows the government to repay its foreign debt more easily.
3) Manufacturing should be encouraged in rural areas to help create job in the countryside where much of the market and surplus labour is located. This would help to avoid the worsening problems of overcrowding in cities and environmental pollution that is reducing the quality of life in LDC dities.
4) If manufacturing is kept on a small scale using local resources, it can be controlled by the local people rather than by large multinational corporations. Success will create jobs and will keep profits within the local community.